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The fnal two studies examined the recidivism of juveniles subject to blood pressure number meanings cheap 40mg innopran xl different registration and notifcation levels arrhythmia with normal heart rate discount innopran xl 80 mg amex. Studies Examining Registration and Notifcation With Juveniles Who Sexually Offend A study by Holmes (2009) examined sex crime arrest rates before and after sex offender registration and notifcation implementation based on an analysis of annual sex crime arrests recorded in the Uniform Crime Report data for 47 states blood pressure chart heart rate innopran xl 40mg low price. The study did not fnd a statistically signifcant decrease in the rate of sex crime arrests in juvenile registration states and juvenile notifcation states post-sex offender registration and notifcation implementation (Holmes, 2009). Sex offender registration and notifcation was implemented in South Carolina in 1995. Observed recidivism rates were based on an average follow-up period of nine years. Registration implementation was not found to be associated with a signifcant reduction in sexual recidivism. However, nonsexual, nonassault recidivism (defned as a new charge) was signifcantly greater for those subject to registration and notifcation,3 suggesting a possible surveillance effect (Letourneau et al. Another study compared the recidivism rates of juveniles subject to registration and notifcation requirements with those of juveniles not required to register (N = 172). Further, a study examining recidivism for juveniles subject to different levels of registration and notifcation focused on juveniles in Washington state who were subject to assessment for registration and notifcation level following release to parole after incarceration from 1995 to 2002 (N = 319). There was no signifcant differences between those who met the registration and notifcation criteria and those who did not meet this criteria on either sexual (overall, 1. Limitations the aforementioned studies have limitations common to all studies that employ offcial statistics on sexual offending or sexual recidivism, namely, the underreporting of sexual offenses to authorities (see, for example, Bachman, 1998, and Tjaden & Thoennes, 2006) and the low base rate for recidivism. Finally, none of the studies were based on random assignment, although it should be noted that interrupted time series analysis based on a suffcient number of observations can produce highly trustworthy fndings. Juvenile Disposition Studies the following fndings from two juvenile disposition studies shed light on some of the unintended consequences of registration and notifcation application with juveniles who have sexually offended. In one study, disposition outcomes for South Carolina juveniles who committed sexual assault or robbery crimes between 1990 and 2004 (N = 18,068) were examined. The study found that juveniles who committed sexual offenses (n = 5,166) were subject to a signifcant change in prosecutor decision-making following implementation of the sex offender registry in 1995, particularly younger juveniles and those with fewer prior offenses. In a study of dispositions for juveniles who committed sexual offenses in an urban region of Michigan in 2006 (N = 299 petitions fled), Calley (2008) found that a high percentage of serious charges were pled down to a lesser charge and, as a result, a signifcant number of juveniles who committed sexual offenses were no longer eligible for county-funded sex-offense-specifc treatment. In essence, juvenile cases were being pled to nonregistration offenses at the expense of not being eligible for treatment (Calley, 2008). Finally, there were no survey data on the actual decision-making process by prosecutors. Survey Data Surveys of stakeholders can provide descriptive data about the impact of registration and notifcation on different populations, including the public, juveniles who commit sexual offenses and their family members, and treatment providers and other professionals who work with juveniles who commit sexual offenses. Impact on the Public In a survey of members of the public (n = 168), higher levels of education were found to be correlated with decreased support for the juvenile registry based on not identifying community safety effectiveness or juveniles who committed sexual offenses as having signifcant understanding of their behavior8 (Stevenson et al. Impact on Juveniles Who Commit Sexual Offenses In a survey of adults (n = 165) aged 21 to 39 who either were never required to register for a juvenile sex crime, formerly registered for a juvenile sex crime or are currently registering for a juvenile sex crime, registration was correlated with "increased severity of depression"9 (Denniston, 2016, p. However, surprisingly, those registrants whose information was made public had decreased severity of depression compared to those registrants whose information was not made public. In addition, other factors such as age at initial registration, years registered, having a juvenile adjudication or adult conviction, having a misdemeanor or felony offense, having a subsequent sexual offense or risk tier registration level were all also unrelated to severity of depression (Denniston, 2016). Impact on Family Members of Juveniles Who Commit Sexual Offenses In a focus group of four Michigan family members of juveniles who commit sexual offenses, concerns were identifed for the stigma of the registry and the impact on social support and employment (Comartin et al. Impact on Treatment Providers and Other Professionals Who Work with Juveniles Who Commit Sexual Offenses In a survey of 265 treatment providers who work with juveniles who commit sexual offenses, registration and notifcation was seen as leading to mental health problems, shame, embarrassment, hopelessness, harassment, school problems and housing instability (Harris et al. In addition, in a survey of juvenile and criminal justice professionals whose agencies work with juveniles who commit sexual offenses (n = 15), the registry was seen as leading to increased legal proceedings and registry work, confusion in terms of registry requirements and a false sense of security, although some participants acknowledged public support for the registry (Henderson, 2015). In addition, many of the survey samples were confned to a specifc geographic location and may not be generalizable to other areas of the country. Finally, given these limitations, the survey results identifed above should be considered exploratory in nature, and therefore, no validated conclusions can be drawn at this time on the impact of registration and notifcation. Comparative Recidivism Rates for Juveniles Who Commit Sexual Offenses Given the limited research on sex offender registration and notifcation with juveniles, a brief review of fndings concerning the sexual recidivism rates of juveniles who sexually offend in relation to two groups - adult sexual offenders and juveniles who commit nonsexual offenses - is presented below. Compared With Adult Sex Offenders the results of three meta-analyses suggest that juveniles who commit sexual offenses have a sexual recidivism rate between 7 and 13 percent based on a follow-up period of approximately fve years (Alexander, 1999; Caldwell, 2010; Reitzel & Carbonell, 2006). By comparison, a relatively recent meta-analysis of studies focusing on adult sexual offenders reported average sexual recidivism rates of 14 percent after a fve-year follow-up period, 20 percent after a 10-year follow-up period and 24 percent after a 15-year follow-up period (Harris & Hanson, 2004). Hence, there appears to be at least a marginal difference in the propensity to reoffend between juveniles who commit sexual offenses and adult sexual offenders.
With improved methodologies blood pressure essentials reviews generic innopran xl 80 mg with amex, future research may demonstrate that certain aspects of biological theories yield benefcial information for understanding and explaining the origins of sexual offending behavior (Stinson blood pressure normal low pulse order innopran xl 80 mg visa, Sales & Becker pulse pressure 70 discount 40 mg innopran xl with amex, 2008). Evolutionary Theories Evolutionary theories have been proposed to explain a variety of human behaviors, including sexual aggression. Evolutionary theory views human behavior as the result of millions of years of adaptive changes designed to meet ongoing challenges within the environment. Several theories rely on evolutionary postulates about sexual selection and sexual strategies to explain sexual aggression. In this theory, sexual coercion is postulated to be merely a type of reproductive strategy, as it is in nonhuman species (Bailey, 1988; Malamuth & Heilmann, 1998; Thornhill & Palmer, 2000). Another theory describes rape as a "courtship disorder" that results from an interruption in normal mating processes (Freund, 1990; Freund, Scher & Hucker, 1983, 1984). Summary of the Evidence on Evolutionary Theories It is very diffcult to empirically test the validity of evolutionary theories. They present a unique perspective in that they view sex offending behavior as an adaptation to environmental or interpersonal events. While this is a new direction that may deserve further consideration, researchers in the feld have largely disregarded these hypotheses as the cause of sexual offending because of their limitations (Travis, 2003). Personality Theories Personality theories are among the earliest sources of explanation for sexual offending behavior. Later personality theorists, however, suggested that early childhood relationships involving trauma or mistreatment could lead a child to internalize negative attitudes and beliefs about both the self and relationships with others, thus altering how the child perceives sex and his or her role in sexual relationships (Leguizamo, 2002). One of these later personality theories - attachment theory - was frst introduced by Bowlby (1988) to explain the relationship between a child and his or her primary caretaker, and how this early relationship affects later adjustment. According to attachment theory, humans have a propensity to establish strong emotional bonds with others, and when individuals have some loss or emotional distress, they act out as a result of their loneliness and isolation. Later research indicates there is a relationship between poor quality attachments and sexual offending. Marshall (1989) found that men who sexually abuse children often have not developed the social skills and self-confdence necessary to form effective intimate relations with peers. This failure creates frustration that causes them to seek intimacy with young partners (Marshall, 1989; Marshall and Marshall, 2000). Seidman and colleagues (1994) conducted two studies aimed at examining intimacy problems and the experience of loneliness among sex offenders. According to these studies, sex offenders have defciencies in social skills that seriously restrict the possibility of maintaining intimacy. Ward and colleagues (1995) proposed that sex offenders are likely to have diffculty forming attachments with others and will engage in distorted thinking, such as "courting" a child and treating him or her as his lover. Knox (2014) recently found that juveniles who have committed a sexual offense had lower levels of attachment to fathers or father fgures than juveniles who have committed a nonsexual offense. Personality theorists also use formulations of personality development based on the results of testing instruments designed to profle personality types. Studies concerning this approach, however, have produced diverse and contradictory fndings, and they have been criticized for failing to adequately demonstrate how the results obtained from testing instruments can add to the understanding of the origins of sexually deviant behavior (Stinson, Sales & Becker, 2008). Further evidence is needed to show how certain personality traits relate specifcally to the cause of sexual offending behavior. The primary criticism of personality theories is that while they show that disturbances exist within the personalities of sex offenders, they fail to explain why these disturbances occur. Hence, personality theories alone do not provide a complete explanation of the cause of sexual offending behavior (Stinson, Sales & Becker, 2008). It is well documented that when individuals commit deviant sexual acts, they often try to diminish their feelings of guilt and shame by making excuses or justifcations for their behavior and rationalizing their actions (Scott & Lyman, 1968; Scully, 1990; Sykes & Matza, 1957). These excuses, justifcations and rationalizations are commonly referred to as "cognitive distortions" or "thinking errors. Thinking errors on the part of sex offenders have been identifed and supported frequently in research. These errors include denial, minimization of harm done, claiming the right or entitlement to the behavior and blaming the victim (Marshall, Anderson & Fernandez, 1999; Ward & Keenan, 1999). The literature also suggests that many sex offenders hold feelings of resentment and use these feelings as justifcation for their behaviors. Marshall, Anderson and Champaigne (1997) theorized that sex offenders are more likely to be self-protective and self-serving due to low self-esteem, poor relationships with others and emotional discomfort or anxiety.
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