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High schoolers masturbatory practices: Their relationship to blood pressure medications buy innopran xl in united states online sexual intercourse and personal characteristics blood pressure chart in pediatrics generic 80 mg innopran xl with mastercard. The development of sex role stereotypes in the third year: Relationships to prehypertension blood pressure purchase innopran xl amex gender labeling, gender identity, sex-types toy preference, and family characteristics. Presented to the Asia Pacific Transgender Network Development Conference, Bangkok, Thailand. A global survey of sexual behaviours, Journal of Family and Reproductive Health, 3, 39-49. Don Lucas is a Professor of Psychology and Coordinator of the Psychology Department at Northwest Vista College in San Antonio, Texas. His teaching over the past three decades has earned him a number of accolades, including the Minnie Stevens Piper Professor Award. Jennifer Fox Jennifer Fox is an Assistant Professor of Psychology and Advisor of Psi Beta at Northwest Vista College in San Antonio, Texas. As a Human Sexuality Educator and a mother of a spirited 6-year-old daughter, she is passionate about promoting sexual literacy for all ages. Creative Commons License the Psychology of Human Sexuality by Don Lucas and Jennifer Fox is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4. Permissions beyond the scope of this license may be available in our Licensing Agreement. Joseph Henry was one of the early founders of the National Academy of Sciences and a leader in early American science. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this volume are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Academy of Sciences or its affiliated institutions. Michael the man who would be queen: the science of gender-bending and transsexualism / J. He was slightly taken aback that I, a psychologist, wanted to meet him, but he also appeared slightly flattered. Although I am virtually certain that my conclusions are correct, they fly in the face of mainstream academic opinion. If a current textbook discussed the basis of my intuitions-which many people share- it would do so in the context of stereotypes. The textbook would say that concepts like "femininity" and "masculinity" are hopelessly muddled concepts that have more to do with the observer than the observed. Scientifically, we have begun a renaissance period for taking femininity and masculinity seriously. This is partly because of men like Edwin, and partly because of boys like Edwin was. I already know that Edwin played with dolls and loathed football, that his best friends were girls. During the past twenty-five years, social scientists have tried to discount or minimize the relation between male homosexuality and femininity. The standard lecture is that sexual orientation, gender identity, and gender role behavior are separate, independent psychological traits; a feminine man is as likely to be straight as gay. It was written with good, but mistaken, intentions: to save gay men from the stigma of femininity. The problem is that most gay men are feminine, or at least they are feminine in certain ways. It is a false and shallow diversity that allows only differences that cannot be observed. To say that femininity and homosexuality are closely bound together in men may be politically incorrect, but it is factually correct, and it has been known for a long time. Because the idea has been "off limits" among scientists for several decades, there is a host of fascinating phenomena well known to gay men and their friends that have barely been touched by scientists: the gay voice, the gay gesture, and prejudice against "femmes," to name a few. The attempt to separate sexuality from gender has been especially Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. Furthermore, the fact that some transsexuals are sexually attracted to men and others to women allegedly means that sex has nothing to do with it. Although transsexuals are cultural hot commodities right now, writers have been either too shallow or too squeamish to give transsexual sexuality the attention it deserves.

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Caging and other materials with which the animals have direct contact may be sterilized after washing before reuse blood pressure jadakiss lyrics purchase innopran xl 40 mg without prescription. Strict operational procedures are frequently established to blood pressure medication how quickly does it work buy innopran xl paypal preclude intermingling of clean and soiled supplies and personnel groups arteria y arteriola order 80 mg innopran xl with visa, depending on work function. Only animals of defined health status are received into the barrier, and once they leave they are prohibited from reentering without retesting. Personnel entry is restricted and those with access are appropriately trained in procedures that minimize the introduction of contaminants. Specialized equipment augmenting the barrier may include isolator cages, individually ventilated cages, and animal changing stations. Detailed information on barrier design, construction, and operations has been recently published (Hessler 2008; Lipman 2006, 2008). Imaging In vivo imaging offers noninvasive methods for evaluating structure and function at the level of the whole animal, tissue, or cell, and allows for the sequential study of temporal events (Chatham and Blackband 2001; Cherry and Gambhir 2001). Imaging devices vary in the technology used to generate an image, body targets imaged, resolution, hazard exposure, and requirements for use. The devices may be self-shielded and require no modifications of the surrounding structure to operate safely, or they may require concrete, solid core masonry, lead-, steel-, or copper-lined walls, or other construction features to operate safely or minimize interference with devices and activities in adjacent areas. Because imaging devices are often expensive to acquire and maintain, and may require specialized support space and highly trained personnel to operate, shared animal imaging resources may be preferable. Whether located in the animal facility or in a separate location, cross Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. If the imaging resource is located outside the animal facility, appropriate transportation methods and routes should be developed to avoid inappropriate exposure of humans to animals in transit. If possible, animals should not be moved past offices, lunch rooms, or public areas where people are likely to be present. As imaging may require the subject to be immobile, often for extended time periods during image acquisition, provisions should be made for delivery of anesthetics and carrier gas, the scavenging of waste anesthetic gas, and adequate animal monitoring (Balaban and Hampshire 2001). Many imaging devices, especially those designed for small animals, are self-contained and require no special physical plant considerations. Provisions should be made to locate the operating console away from imaging devices that emit ionizing or magnetic radiation. Imaging devices with components that are difficult to sanitize should be covered with a disposable or sanitizable material when not in use. Whole body Irradiation Total body irradiation of small laboratory animals may be accomplished using devices that emit either gamma- or X-rays. Devices are usually self-shielded and, because of the weight of the shielding material, may require special site considerations. Devices with gamma-emitting sources are subject to regulations that require adherence to specific security, monitoring, and personnel clearance requirements (Nuclear Regulatory Commission 2008). The site selected for irradiators should also take into account whether they are to be used for animals and biologics, as well as the source and microbial status of the animals to be irradiated. Locating them in the animal facility may require access for personnel who would normally not Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. This is accomplished by employing appropriate practices and equipment, vaccinating personnel if a vaccine is available, and ensuring the proper design and operation of the physical plant. Facility design, engineering criteria, construction methods and materials, commissioning, and validation become more important with each increasing level. Considerable care should be taken when selecting the team of professionals responsible for the design, engineering, construction, and commissioning of a containment facility. These regulations stipulate, among other requirements, that the institution registered to use select agents establish and adhere to stringent security measures. The specific facility features, equipment, and safety practices to be employed will depend, to a considerable extent, on whether a specific hazard is a particulate, volatile, or both. Facility features applicable to all hazards include isolation of the animals and their waste, provision of sealed Copyright © National Academy of Sciences.

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The fnal two studies examined the recidivism of juveniles subject to blood pressure number meanings cheap 40mg innopran xl different registration and notifcation levels arrhythmia with normal heart rate discount innopran xl 80 mg amex. Studies Examining Registration and Notifcation With Juveniles Who Sexually Offend A study by Holmes (2009) examined sex crime arrest rates before and after sex offender registration and notifcation implementation based on an analysis of annual sex crime arrests recorded in the Uniform Crime Report data for 47 states blood pressure chart heart rate innopran xl 40mg low price. The study did not fnd a statistically signifcant decrease in the rate of sex crime arrests in juvenile registration states and juvenile notifcation states post-sex offender registration and notifcation implementation (Holmes, 2009). Sex offender registration and notifcation was implemented in South Carolina in 1995. Observed recidivism rates were based on an average follow-up period of nine years. Registration implementation was not found to be associated with a signifcant reduction in sexual recidivism. However, nonsexual, nonassault recidivism (defned as a new charge) was signifcantly greater for those subject to registration and notifcation,3 suggesting a possible surveillance effect (Letourneau et al. Another study compared the recidivism rates of juveniles subject to registration and notifcation requirements with those of juveniles not required to register (N = 172). Further, a study examining recidivism for juveniles subject to different levels of registration and notifcation focused on juveniles in Washington state who were subject to assessment for registration and notifcation level following release to parole after incarceration from 1995 to 2002 (N = 319). There was no signifcant differences between those who met the registration and notifcation criteria and those who did not meet this criteria on either sexual (overall, 1. Limitations the aforementioned studies have limitations common to all studies that employ offcial statistics on sexual offending or sexual recidivism, namely, the underreporting of sexual offenses to authorities (see, for example, Bachman, 1998, and Tjaden & Thoennes, 2006) and the low base rate for recidivism. Finally, none of the studies were based on random assignment, although it should be noted that interrupted time series analysis based on a suffcient number of observations can produce highly trustworthy fndings. Juvenile Disposition Studies the following fndings from two juvenile disposition studies shed light on some of the unintended consequences of registration and notifcation application with juveniles who have sexually offended. In one study, disposition outcomes for South Carolina juveniles who committed sexual assault or robbery crimes between 1990 and 2004 (N = 18,068) were examined. The study found that juveniles who committed sexual offenses (n = 5,166) were subject to a signifcant change in prosecutor decision-making following implementation of the sex offender registry in 1995, particularly younger juveniles and those with fewer prior offenses. In a study of dispositions for juveniles who committed sexual offenses in an urban region of Michigan in 2006 (N = 299 petitions fled), Calley (2008) found that a high percentage of serious charges were pled down to a lesser charge and, as a result, a signifcant number of juveniles who committed sexual offenses were no longer eligible for county-funded sex-offense-specifc treatment. In essence, juvenile cases were being pled to nonregistration offenses at the expense of not being eligible for treatment (Calley, 2008). Finally, there were no survey data on the actual decision-making process by prosecutors. Survey Data Surveys of stakeholders can provide descriptive data about the impact of registration and notifcation on different populations, including the public, juveniles who commit sexual offenses and their family members, and treatment providers and other professionals who work with juveniles who commit sexual offenses. Impact on the Public In a survey of members of the public (n = 168), higher levels of education were found to be correlated with decreased support for the juvenile registry based on not identifying community safety effectiveness or juveniles who committed sexual offenses as having signifcant understanding of their behavior8 (Stevenson et al. Impact on Juveniles Who Commit Sexual Offenses In a survey of adults (n = 165) aged 21 to 39 who either were never required to register for a juvenile sex crime, formerly registered for a juvenile sex crime or are currently registering for a juvenile sex crime, registration was correlated with "increased severity of depression"9 (Denniston, 2016, p. However, surprisingly, those registrants whose information was made public had decreased severity of depression compared to those registrants whose information was not made public. In addition, other factors such as age at initial registration, years registered, having a juvenile adjudication or adult conviction, having a misdemeanor or felony offense, having a subsequent sexual offense or risk tier registration level were all also unrelated to severity of depression (Denniston, 2016). Impact on Family Members of Juveniles Who Commit Sexual Offenses In a focus group of four Michigan family members of juveniles who commit sexual offenses, concerns were identifed for the stigma of the registry and the impact on social support and employment (Comartin et al. Impact on Treatment Providers and Other Professionals Who Work with Juveniles Who Commit Sexual Offenses In a survey of 265 treatment providers who work with juveniles who commit sexual offenses, registration and notifcation was seen as leading to mental health problems, shame, embarrassment, hopelessness, harassment, school problems and housing instability (Harris et al. In addition, in a survey of juvenile and criminal justice professionals whose agencies work with juveniles who commit sexual offenses (n = 15), the registry was seen as leading to increased legal proceedings and registry work, confusion in terms of registry requirements and a false sense of security, although some participants acknowledged public support for the registry (Henderson, 2015). In addition, many of the survey samples were confned to a specifc geographic location and may not be generalizable to other areas of the country. Finally, given these limitations, the survey results identifed above should be considered exploratory in nature, and therefore, no validated conclusions can be drawn at this time on the impact of registration and notifcation. Comparative Recidivism Rates for Juveniles Who Commit Sexual Offenses Given the limited research on sex offender registration and notifcation with juveniles, a brief review of fndings concerning the sexual recidivism rates of juveniles who sexually offend in relation to two groups - adult sexual offenders and juveniles who commit nonsexual offenses - is presented below. Compared With Adult Sex Offenders the results of three meta-analyses suggest that juveniles who commit sexual offenses have a sexual recidivism rate between 7 and 13 percent based on a follow-up period of approximately fve years (Alexander, 1999; Caldwell, 2010; Reitzel & Carbonell, 2006). By comparison, a relatively recent meta-analysis of studies focusing on adult sexual offenders reported average sexual recidivism rates of 14 percent after a fve-year follow-up period, 20 percent after a 10-year follow-up period and 24 percent after a 15-year follow-up period (Harris & Hanson, 2004). Hence, there appears to be at least a marginal difference in the propensity to reoffend between juveniles who commit sexual offenses and adult sexual offenders.

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With improved methodologies blood pressure essentials reviews generic innopran xl 80 mg with amex, future research may demonstrate that certain aspects of biological theories yield benefcial information for understanding and explaining the origins of sexual offending behavior (Stinson blood pressure normal low pulse order innopran xl 80 mg visa, Sales & Becker pulse pressure 70 discount 40 mg innopran xl with amex, 2008). Evolutionary Theories Evolutionary theories have been proposed to explain a variety of human behaviors, including sexual aggression. Evolutionary theory views human behavior as the result of millions of years of adaptive changes designed to meet ongoing challenges within the environment. Several theories rely on evolutionary postulates about sexual selection and sexual strategies to explain sexual aggression. In this theory, sexual coercion is postulated to be merely a type of reproductive strategy, as it is in nonhuman species (Bailey, 1988; Malamuth & Heilmann, 1998; Thornhill & Palmer, 2000). Another theory describes rape as a "courtship disorder" that results from an interruption in normal mating processes (Freund, 1990; Freund, Scher & Hucker, 1983, 1984). Summary of the Evidence on Evolutionary Theories It is very diffcult to empirically test the validity of evolutionary theories. They present a unique perspective in that they view sex offending behavior as an adaptation to environmental or interpersonal events. While this is a new direction that may deserve further consideration, researchers in the feld have largely disregarded these hypotheses as the cause of sexual offending because of their limitations (Travis, 2003). Personality Theories Personality theories are among the earliest sources of explanation for sexual offending behavior. Later personality theorists, however, suggested that early childhood relationships involving trauma or mistreatment could lead a child to internalize negative attitudes and beliefs about both the self and relationships with others, thus altering how the child perceives sex and his or her role in sexual relationships (Leguizamo, 2002). One of these later personality theories - attachment theory - was frst introduced by Bowlby (1988) to explain the relationship between a child and his or her primary caretaker, and how this early relationship affects later adjustment. According to attachment theory, humans have a propensity to establish strong emotional bonds with others, and when individuals have some loss or emotional distress, they act out as a result of their loneliness and isolation. Later research indicates there is a relationship between poor quality attachments and sexual offending. Marshall (1989) found that men who sexually abuse children often have not developed the social skills and self-confdence necessary to form effective intimate relations with peers. This failure creates frustration that causes them to seek intimacy with young partners (Marshall, 1989; Marshall and Marshall, 2000). Seidman and colleagues (1994) conducted two studies aimed at examining intimacy problems and the experience of loneliness among sex offenders. According to these studies, sex offenders have defciencies in social skills that seriously restrict the possibility of maintaining intimacy. Ward and colleagues (1995) proposed that sex offenders are likely to have diffculty forming attachments with others and will engage in distorted thinking, such as "courting" a child and treating him or her as his lover. Knox (2014) recently found that juveniles who have committed a sexual offense had lower levels of attachment to fathers or father fgures than juveniles who have committed a nonsexual offense. Personality theorists also use formulations of personality development based on the results of testing instruments designed to profle personality types. Studies concerning this approach, however, have produced diverse and contradictory fndings, and they have been criticized for failing to adequately demonstrate how the results obtained from testing instruments can add to the understanding of the origins of sexually deviant behavior (Stinson, Sales & Becker, 2008). Further evidence is needed to show how certain personality traits relate specifcally to the cause of sexual offending behavior. The primary criticism of personality theories is that while they show that disturbances exist within the personalities of sex offenders, they fail to explain why these disturbances occur. Hence, personality theories alone do not provide a complete explanation of the cause of sexual offending behavior (Stinson, Sales & Becker, 2008). It is well documented that when individuals commit deviant sexual acts, they often try to diminish their feelings of guilt and shame by making excuses or justifcations for their behavior and rationalizing their actions (Scott & Lyman, 1968; Scully, 1990; Sykes & Matza, 1957). These excuses, justifcations and rationalizations are commonly referred to as "cognitive distortions" or "thinking errors. Thinking errors on the part of sex offenders have been identifed and supported frequently in research. These errors include denial, minimization of harm done, claiming the right or entitlement to the behavior and blaming the victim (Marshall, Anderson & Fernandez, 1999; Ward & Keenan, 1999). The literature also suggests that many sex offenders hold feelings of resentment and use these feelings as justifcation for their behaviors. Marshall, Anderson and Champaigne (1997) theorized that sex offenders are more likely to be self-protective and self-serving due to low self-esteem, poor relationships with others and emotional discomfort or anxiety.

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