Vice Chair, Louisiana State University School of Medicine in Shreveport
Lacan blood pressure medication good for kidneys order benicar 40 mg with visa, "The Mirror Stage as Formative of the I Function as Revealed in Psychoanalytical Experience prehypertension stress cheap benicar 10mg amex," in Йcrits prehypertension treatments and drugs purchase benicar uk, p. Lйvi-Strauss, "Structural Analysis in Linguistics and in Anthropology," in Structural Anthropology, trans. See Boothby, Freud as Philosopher: Metapsychology after Lacan (New York: Routledge, 2001), pp. See Leupin, Lacan Today: Psychoanalysis, Science and Religion (New York: Other Press, 2004), p. However, to do so he not only has to go against mainstream interpretations of this tradition, but also has to do great damage to the founding texts themselves. In this regard, German Idealism presents us with an unconscious Grundlogik that we can only now, with the aid of Freud and especially Lacan, reconstruct, thus giving us a profoundly new and controversial view of its internal development and theoretical preoccupations. To many critics, Zizek simply shows no concern for textual faithfulness or the history of ideas in his readings of Kant, Hegel, Schelling, and Lacan. His methodological approach appears, if anything, to function through a deliberate misunderstanding or liberal reconstruction that purposefully overlooks key conceptual distinctions that challenge his own philosophical outlook. You know the term Deleuze uses for reading philosophers-anal interpretation, buggering them. But again, the basic idea being this mutual reading, this mutual buggering [chuckles] of this focal point, radical negativity and so on, of German Idealism with the very fundamental (Germans have this nice term, grundeswig35) insight of psychoanalysis. The comparison of his own philosophy to that of Deleuze is of crucial importance and is not to be downplayed. It demonstrates that, even if Zizek is intentionally going against surface textual movements in his reading, he does not understand his own philosophy as in any sense arbitrary, a deliberate misunderstanding of the philosophers with whom he is engaging, or even as exhibiting any disregard for the tradition. Zizek recognizes that he is not doing traditional history of philosophy or any kind of philologico-exegetical interpretation, but is, instead, attempting to do something that is productive of new concepts by revealing their disavowed insights. But this generative activity of concept-creation can bring forth something unexpected, unsettling, even traumatic-we may produce monsters. Zizek is not directly interested in what the texts of the German Idealist tradition "have to say," that is, their intended meaning, because this level of their discourse-like most discourses that fail to reflect upon the psychoanalytical conditions within which a discourse as such can take place-usually operates largely on the level of the Imaginary and its illusionary fantasy and can thus, perhaps even at most crucial junctures of conceptual argumentation, display a psychoanalytical superficiality. What therefore concerns him are hitherto unrealized textual potentialities, premonitions of which we can see in "marginal" comments or in various structures that often obstruct the general flow of a given philosophical system and consequently can be said to protrude out of its symbolic universe, negatively contorting it from the inside. Yet it is only by means of a thorough familiarity with this system and its surface affirmations that one can arrive at such unearthed possibilities and "reactualize" them. The analyst must, after all, listen to the analysand, even if, especially in its Lacanian mode, it often appears as if they are unconcerned or ignoring your needs and demands (for the goal of therapy is not the adaptation of the ego but rather a confrontation with unconscious, often traumatic truth). Not only is language something that exerts control over us more than we have power over it (as an ego, rather than existing as a speaking linguistic subject, we are in a strong sense spoken), but the surface content of our own words often belies a greater (consciously) disavowed (but unconsciously known) truth, a truth that is not "hidden" in some deep, elusive place, but is so obvious that we often do not see it: "[t]he psychoanalyst is not an explorer of unknown continents or of grand depths, but a linguist: he learns to decode the writing that is already there, under his eyes, open to the look of everyone. Those words or thoughts may become accessible to the analysand in time, in the course of analysis, but they may also be introduced by the analyst in the form of an interpretation. That is what Lacan means when he says that "interpretation hits the cause": it hits that around which the analysand is revolving without being able to "put it into words. What he notices is something primordially at odds with their surface content, which rather than rendering the texts of German Idealism logically inconsistent is more profoundly indicative of some kind of internal unconscious struggle, a struggle that is philosophically revealing and whose exploration-now made possible by the clinical tools of psychoanalysis-promises to unearth new ways of approaching its fundamental concepts. Little if any evidence points towards it, and often the philological references that I have gathered can be easily opposed by numerous counter-examples. After all, "when truth is too traumatic to be confronted directly, it can only be accepted in the guise of a fiction. In various places, Zizek characterizes his own project as strictly Hegelian because, like Hegel, the enigma that occupies him is the possibility of appearance itself: that is, how the realm of phenomenal reality could emerge from the self-actualization of substance. Hegel is said to be the first to understand this question in terms of inscribing the subject into the absolute: a subject that, in the Kantian aftermath, is understood as intrinsically irreducible to the immanent ontological field that brought it forth, and that can freely mediate the latter for itself through its own idealizing activity. Apparently arguing by means of resources found in the latter for a self-splitting or of the noumenal within the dark pre-history of subjectivity, Zizek tries to show how the only consistent way to explain why there is experience is to posit an ontological catastrophe at the basis of the subject. Consequently, it would appear that Zizek makes the following his axiomatic first principle thanks to a direct confrontation with Hegel: Freedom is not a raw, brute fact, but an expression of the caustic collapse of material being, a brisure in the heart of Real, which is synonymous with the subject itself; "it designates [. In both the Ticklish Subject and the Parallax View, for example, there are praises of Schelling as the greatest philosopher of the pre-symbolic Real, of the nature of the impossible X, the je ne sais quoi, which precedes consciousness as the most central theme in post-Kantian philosophy and whose problematic uncannily reappears in the wake of the Lacanian subject. Zizek even goes as far as to say that Schelling was "the first to formulate this task"46 and the philosopher who "gave the most detailed account of this X in his notion of the Ground of Existence,"47 which is why his philosophy and not that of Hegel is "at the origins of dialectical materialism. Not only does it potentially suggest that Zizek tries to disavow too strong a relationship between a Lacanian-inspired metaphysics of the Real and Schelling, but it also shows that he might downplay the role that Schellingian notions play (or undermine possible roles that others Grasping the Vanishing Mediator Between the Real and the Ideal 45 could) in such a metaphysics, in terms of either our understanding of ontology (the universal), natural sciences (the particular), or politics (the singular), the trinity that constitutes the conceptual fold of the Parallax View, his first theoretical magnum opus.
As more and more ships made their way down the coast of Africa and on to arteria differential 20mg benicar visa India heart attack referred pain buy discount benicar 10 mg, Europeans who remained at home were able to hypertension handout buy benicar 10 mg with visa keep abreast of what was happening in these far-off lands through the various books that seemed to crop up everywhere. Many of these books were diaries and travelogues, written by adventurers, sea captains, wealthy travelers, priests, traders, administrators-in short, anyone who could write about the people of Africa and the East Indies did so. At home, the people eagerly awaited any and every bit of information that these returning voyagers might bring concerning the habits and customs of the people who lived in these "newly discovered" parts of the world. Since Portugal was the first to establish outposts in India, it is not surprising that the earliest books to be written about life in the East Indies were authored by Portuguese writers. The first European book to deal with the effects and uses of marihuana was written by a Portuguese physician whose writings were posthumously burned in public because a secret he had carefully guarded all his life was finally revealed after his death. After hearing about India and its people, Da Orta de-cided to enlist in the Portuguese civil service as personal physician to the viceroy of the Indian provinces so that he could observe firsthand the truth of all these strange and exotic customs. It was as a result of these writings that the people of Europe learned of a new and previously unimagined use for the familiar hemp plant. Da Orta was not a native-born Portuguese citizen but the son of Spanish Jews who had been forced into exile when Spain banished all Jews from that country in 1492. In that year, Jews were once again faced with the threat of exile if they did not convert to Christianity. This enabled him to remain in the country and allowed his son Garcia to enter the Spanish universities of Salamanca and Alcala de Henares where he studied arts and medicine. Da Orta got more than he bargained for, however, for in serving in India he was occasionally required to take part in military campaigns against the native populace. The life of a military surgeon seems not to have been to his liking, for as soon as his enlistment ran out he left the army and went into private practice in Goa, the Portuguese colony off the coast of India. It was during this period that he wrote his famous Colloquies on the Simples and Drugs of India, which was subsequently pub-lished in Goa in 1563. Written in the form of a dialogue between himself and a colleague from Salamanca named Ruano, Da Orta describes for his readers the effects of various hallucinogenic drugs commonly used in India. Among those which receive special attention are opium, datura, and of course bangue, the concoction made from cannabis. Bangue, Da Orta said, makes a man laugh foolishly and lifts him above all cares and anxieties. Those of my servants who took it, unbe-knownst to me, said that it made them so as not to feel their work, to be very happy, and to have a craving for food. I believe that it is so generally used and by such a large number of people, that there is no mystery about it. Many Portuguese have told me that they have taken it and they experienced the same feelings, more especially female partakers. The book was widely read by his colleagues and by those interested in the customs of the people of India, and very often his observations were copied verbatim in subsequent medical treatises or travel narratives, often without giving any credit as to source. Prepared properly, hemp could be made into a drug the actions of which included euphoria, sedation, stimulation of appetite, hallucina-tions, and aphrodisia. The book was later republished in Latin, Italian, French, and English, and was widely quoted whenever any reference was made to the hallucinogenic plants of India. He too had had to take part in military campaigns against the native populace, and on one occasion was actually captured and imprisoned in Bengal. After his release, he traveled to Goa where he visited Da Orta, and the two doctors exchanged information on what they had learned about the exotic drugs of the Indies. Like Da Orta, Acosta had found that bangue was used by different people for different reasons: "some take it to forget their worries and sleep without thoughts; others to enjoy in their sleep a variety of dreams and delusions; others become drunk and act like merry jesters; others because of love sickness. For those who wished to hallucinate ("enjoy a variety of dreams"), the recipe called for the addi-tion of camphor, clove, nutmeg, and mace. The last major book of the sixteenth century to mention marihuana was written by a Dutchman, John Huyghen van Linschoten. To visit India he had to be employed by the Portuguese since they still controlled the subcontinent.
For a similar in spirit account of the distinction between critical and dogmatic metaphysics blood pressure empty chart order benicar 10 mg, see Gabriel hypertension and renal failure purchase benicar 40 mg overnight delivery, Das Absolute und die Welt in Schellings heart attack lyrics order generic benicar canada, p. For the basic definition of "correlationism," see Meillassoux, After Finitude, pp. Gabriel and Zizek, "Introduction: A Plea for a Return to Post-Kantian Idealism," in Mythology, Madness and Laughter, p. However, at this juncture three potential problems emerge from various directions. The second direction is that of the skeptic, who can invent a thought experiment to demonstrate that it is perhaps impossible to develop any positive metaphysics from within a differential system of signifiers without any external reference. The third direction is that of the very basis of ideality itself understood as a psychotic withdrawal into the night of the world, the overcoming of which demands the seemingly impossible task of developing a paradoxical form of "successful" psychotic thinking capable of penetrating the impenetrable dusk of its own psychosis. Is his radical idealism truly capable of providing us with a comprehensive metaphysics? What Hegel missed was the paradoxical essence of this very movement, a dialectical movement that causes dialectics to collapse upon itself. For Zizek, this means that culture is the always failed attempt at reconciliation: the Idea is nothing other than this very act of its own returning to itself, this movement being constitutive of that to which is returned;465 for it to reach its end would herald its death. Representing a recoil into a psychotic, irreal space, not only do the subjective and objective/ mind and world thereby fall into infinite conflict with one another, but it becomes impossible to explain why the Ideal emerges. According to Zizek it is Schelling who, fighting against the perceived threat of Hegelian Absolute Idealism, gives the most detailed account of this immanent self-sundering of being into its real and ideal poles in his account of the Grund as the ever elusive, eternal Past of consciousness, and the pure act of unconscious decision underlying the birth of the universe of human meaning. After all, even if we can be said to have access to both the ancestral past of the Real prior to subjectivity and the Real that surrounds us "outside" of language through the very inconsistency of our notional apparatus, the methodology of which Hegel offers us through an analysis of the dialectic of phenomenal appearance and the very structure of symbolic thought, nevertheless the precise moment in which the subject institutes itself into being poses a problem to such a self-overcoming of radical idealism, because it is a leaping point in the Real into a new age of the world that is always "beyond" the Symbolic as its irretrievable origin. It is uncertain that the materialism-idealism relationship we see in the Schelling of the Freiheitsschrift and the Weltalter can be read as a mytho-poetics of the birth of a radical transcendental idealism in the manner Zizek suggests. Schelling refuses to separate the ontological in-itself of precognitive or extrasymbolic reality from the epistemological sphere of idealist representations, arguing that the two must be intimately connected if philosophy is to find a secure basis. If there is an identity between the Real and the Ideal, the problem of their relation to one another is relegated to a metaphysical or naturephilosophical level rather than a strictly epistemic or idealist one. Whereas in the middle-late period this idea of identity is expressed by the notion of the Mitwissenschaft ("co-science") of creation, it is more clearly for our purposes articulated in the earlier Ideas for a Philosophy of Nature, where Schelling argues for the necessity of a dialectically positive the Deadlocks of Ontological Catastrophe 287 interactivity between mind and matter if transcendental idealism is to have a proper founding, which goes in the face of both the Hegelian proof of the insignificance of an opposition between idealistic and realistic philosophy and a Zizekian metaphysics of the disjunctive "and": For what we want is not that Nature should coincide with the laws of our mind by chance (as if through some third intermediary), but that she herself, necessarily and originally, should not only express, but even realize, the laws of our mind, and that she is, and is called, Nature only insofar as she does so. Here then in the absolute identity of Mind in us and Nature outside us, the problem of the possibility of a Nature external to us must be resolved. There is no absolute split between the Real and the Ideal, mind and matter, the dead movement of inanimate objects and the life of organic being-there are only the unconditioned, groundless powers of nature as a pulsating all that creates specific bodies and their various, innumerable, and unpredictable the Deadlocks of Ontological Catastrophe 289 organizations according to its own cryptic inner process. There is just a difference of degree and not of type between, say, atoms, chemicals, and free ethical subjects, insofar as there is a natural history of mind to which we must have recourse to explain its apparent autonomy. Nature is a dark dynamicity that brings philosophy far away from the practico-concrete sphere of an anthropocentric universe into the enigmatic palpating powers that gave birth to it in their antagonism and the forgotten aeons of the abyssal dregs of cosmic time that have preceded us. In this manner, Grant is taking Schelling literally at his word: A great work of the ancient world stands before us as an incomprehensible whole until we find traces of its manner of growth and gradual development. How much more must this be the case with such a multifariously assembled individual as the earth! Even the smallest grain of sand must contain determinations within itself that we cannot exhaust until we have laid out the entire course of creative nature leading up to it. Everything is only the work of time, and it is only through time that each thing receives its particular character and meaning. The stark implications of this, as Grant himself notes, were clearly perceived by Eschenmayer, a Fichtean natural scientist, who after reading the Freiheitsschrift fell into a paroxysm of horror due to its primary soulwrenching implication: "your essay on human freedom seems to me a complete transformation of ethics into physics, a consumption of the free by the necessary, of feeling by understanding, of the moral by the natural, and above all a complete depotentiation of the higher into the lower order of things. Accordingly, the more disorderly the phenomenon, the darker and more abyssal the ground. This is why the inquiry into human freedom must (a) specify the attachment of this power of infinite evolution to a finite phenomenon (human), and (b) consider the ground of such a freedom as derivative of the "self-operation of the ground" or the "will of the deep" in the geological series: the potentiating series through which such a freedom must (repeatedly) evolve must therefore present the expression of geological potencies in practical intelligence. First, if Grant is correct, Schelling rejects from the outset the very idea of a self-enclosed transcendental framework and its concomitant mind-body dualism, the ontological emergence of which is, according to Zizek, the fundamental philosophical obsession of the middle-late Schelling.
These strategies for the individual appear to hypertension medications discount 40 mg benicar with amex be in contrast to blood pressure tracking chart printable purchase 40 mg benicar free shipping the evolution of social relationships of higher species and humans that are characterized by shared communications prehypertension pregnant quality 20mg benicar, trust, and altruistic behaviors. As Ford puts it: Reciprocal altruism can be viewed as a form of symbiosis, with each party helping the other parties while helping itself. An immediate payoff (reciprocation) is not needed if the potential for long-term benefit exists. These conditions include long life span, low dispersal rates, individual recognition, and a degree of mutual dependence. These factors increase the probability of multiple encounters with the same network of individuals. Thus, it comes as no surprise that computer-assisted networks are relatively immature. On the other hand, what is impressive, if not breath-taking, is how rapidly such networks are capable of evolving and maturing within the relatively unconstrained environment of cyber space. Technology combined with the creativity of the human spirit places the cycle of natural selection in a time warp, as well as a space warp. People, ideas, and kernels of knowledge come into contact, if not conflict, with each other far more easily and frequently than possible in the physical world. The results may be good or evil, and not merely on the basis of human intents and motivations. With reference to the positive impacts of social networks, Ford notes that "A partial list of altruistic behaviors includes. Knowledge that is tacit exists only in the minds of people, while that which is explicit has been documented in records. Although it is amazing how fast rumors can spread and how persistent "urban legends" can be, there are natural limits on the sharing of tacit knowledge that do not exist with explicit knowledge. In the first place, since tacit knowledge depends upon a relative degree of secrecy, it is logically self-defeating because knowledge that is widely shared ceases to be "secret. By definition, lying and deceit involve denial of reality with the hope, if not the expectation of "getting away with it,"i. Accountability is about "keeping score," and keeping score means creating and maintaining records that faithfully document reality. Speaking of the psychological and sociological dynamics of unbalanced exchanges of value, Ford notes: On the surface, cheating that is, taking without giving benefits the one who cheats. One strategy is to learn to be a subtle cheater, repaying with less than what was received. However, when individuals become known as cheaters, resentment will probably cause others to reduce their assistance to those individuals. One of the obvious yet often unrecognized consequences of information technology systems is that they create "traces" (records) of human activity. Thus, the potential and the challenge is to use information technology efficiently and effectively to create, manage, and maintain electronic records so as to facilitate the free and fair exchange of values among human beings over extended periods of time. Countervailing against realization of that potential, however, is a powerful psychological barrier. In other words, reliable documentation of reality constrains our ability to be creative in our beliefs and, at least in the short run, that may be contrary to our psychological, if not our physical well-being. Delving more deeply into the neurological syndromes underlying deceit in some individuals, Ford points out. The provoked response may be quite nonsensical, but the patient has little awareness of any absurdity. Confabulation is assumed to be an effort to fill memory gaps, and although it may be a prominent symptom in patients who have memory deficits. Patients with this condition impulsively provide more spectacular and spontaneous false information. It has been suggested that the major difficulty for these patients is the ability to organize the context of their memories. In other words, memories from the past may be confused with memories of the present.
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